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 NIST Digital Archives

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A Century of Excellence Published in 2001, A Century of Excellence in Measurements, Standards, and Technology: A Chronicle of Selected NBS/NIST Publications, 1901-2000 (SP958) commemorates the centennial of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by presenting brief accounts of selected classic NIST publications. These publications illustrate the rich history of the Institute’s scientific and technical accomplishments and the broad scope of its contributions to the U.S. A Century of Excellence was edited by David R. Lide. Its 102 vignettes were written by NIST staff.

AD-X2 Controversy Photographic Collection The AD-X2 battery-testing controversy, which began in 1948, was caused by the testing of a material - a battery additive - marketed under the name Battery AD-X2.” This product when added to a lead-acid battery allegedly improved its performance and, under some circumstances, could presumably revive a dead battery. This incident resulted in congressional hearings, newspaper headlines, and charges of Bureau bias against the little guy.

Aeronautic Instruments Photographic Collection The Aeronautic Instruments Photographic collection depicts the instruments developed by the aeronautic instruments program at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Included are photographs of altimeters, airspeed indicators, tachometers, and other aeronautical instruments.

Anechoic Chamber Photographic Collection The Sound Building, dedicated to the study of acoustic phenomena, featured a large anechoic chamber. It was begun in 1965 and occupied early in 1968. It achieved its quiet because it was lined with large fiberglass wedges paired in a pattern that absorbed more than 99% of the sound originating within it. The chamber was used for microphone calibrations, loudspeaker measurements, sound level meter calibration, noise measurement, psychoacoustic experiments, radiation and scattering experiments, and general use when a quiet environment was needed.

Appliance Efficiency Photographic Collection The Appliance Efficiency Photographic Collection consists of images documenting the testing of household appliances at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Items tested included ranges, laundry appliances, and water heaters. NBS developed test procedures to calculate household appliance efficiency and operating costs to help the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) meet its responsibilities under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (1975).

Atomic Clock Photographic Collection The Atomic Clock Photographic Collection is comprised of images documenting the development of the atomic clocks that were part of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Atomic Time System. The NBS atomic clock program sought to provide a spectroscopic standard capable of being used as a new atomic standard of time and frequency to replace the mean solar day and so change the arbitrary units of time to atomic ones.

Automated Manufacturing Research Facility Photographic Collection In 1979 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) scientists realized the significance to American industry of a factory in which every part could be made automatically, with no rejects and little scrap; thus was born the idea for an Automated Manufacturing Research Laboratory (AMRF). The concept had several components: careful analysis of the manufacturing process to reduce errors in materials treatment to acceptable levels; generation of manufacturing protocols involving robotics and humans within a generic system; and development of interfacing methods to permit the use of optimum efficiency in the choice of equipment, control computers, and software.

Automotive Research Photographic Collection The Automotive Research Photographic Collection documents the research at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) on automobiles in the first half of the twentieth century. Between 1920 and 1930 the number of cars registered in the United States leaped from 9 to 26.5 million. NBS research on the automobile and airplane began as an effort to conserve the Nation's supply of gasoline and oil.

Building and Fire Research Photographic Collection The Fire Research Photographic Collection documents work that began with funds appropriated by Congress in 1913 so that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) could study fire resistant building materials. Fires were claiming thousands of lives annually in the U.S., with property losses exceeding $250 million. In a joint undertaking with the National Fire Protection Association and the Underwriters' Laboratories, NBS aimed at a thorough study of the behavior and safety of building materials in various types of construction under all possible fire conditions.

Cement Testing Photographic Collections In 1911 the cement laboratories of the Bureau National Bureau of Standards (NBS) began testing cement purchased for Government construction projects. The sampling required over 500,000 physical tests for fineness, specific gravity, tensile strength, and time of setting. These tests, however, did little more than determine whether the samples met current Government specifications, and in many cases the specifications were far from clear or consistent. Early in 1912, NBS called manufacturers and Federal engineers to the first Portland Cement Conference, in order to consider preparation of a single standard specification. As a result, a Presidential Executive order was issued on April 30, 1912, declaring that all Portland cement purchased by the Government was to conform to the specification agreed upon.

Charters of Freedom Photographic Collection At the request of the Librarian of Congress in 1939, an investigation was undertaken by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to determine the best means of preserving the original copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. On March 16, 1940, NBS recommended that the documents be placed in specially-constructed enclosures, that the air in the enclosures be replaced with a chemically inert gas, and that the enclosures be sealed. This project was interrupted by World War II and in 1945 the work resumed. The enclosures were designed with detectors to make sure air could not leak into them and with filters to protect the documents against radiation. An external lighting system was created to provide adequate light to view the documents.

Colorimetry Photographic Collection Colorimetry is the science behind the measurement of color. A variety of industries and interest groups pushed the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to standardize color at the beginning of the 20th Century. As early as 1912, to settle disputes at the time, a cottonseed oil firm and representatives of the butter and oleomargarine industries called on NBS for help with color grading of their products. This research opened up a whole new branch of physics for investigation.

Constant of Gravitation The Constant of Gravitation Photographic Collection contains photographs of the scales and other instruments used for the determination of the constant of gravitation at the National Bureau of Standards between 1924 and 1942. Paul R. Heyl of the Mechanics and Sound Division made his first redetermination of the constant of gravitation (G) in 1930. In 1942, Heyl and Peter Chrzanowski published the results of a new determination of the constant of gravitation made with an improved torsion balance. Only slight improvement in precision over the 1930 result was achieved.

Cryogenics Photographic Collection The National Bureau of Standards’ (NBS) interest in cryogenics (the production of very low temperatures and the properties of materials at those temperatures) dates back to 1904, when a plant for making and maintaining liquid and solid hydrogen, the invention of British physicist James Dewar, was exhibited at the St. Louis Fair in 1903 and purchased by NBS. The images in the Cryogenics Photographic Collection document experiments and equipment from the 1930s to the late 1950s.

Evenson Highest Frequency Photographic Collection National Bureau of Standards (NBS) researchers Kenneth Evenson, Donald Jennings and Russell Petersen successfully accomplished the highest direct frequency measurement ever made (over 520 terahertz) in a joint project with the Canadian National Research Council in 1972.

Federal Basis for Weights and Measures Report Photographic Collection This collection represents graphics and images from NBS Circular 593 “The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United States,” issued June 5, 1958. The publication presents a largely chronological review, for the period 1776-1956, of congressional efforts and accomplishments in the general weights and measures area, with particular emphasis on units and standards. In its entirety the Circular presents a connected and reasonably comprehensive story of the Federal contribution to the legislative basis for weights and measures administration in the United States.

Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler Photographic Collection Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler (1770-1843) was the first superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey, holding that office from 1807 to 1818 and again from 1832 until his death in November 1843. In 1836, the Office of Weights and Measures was established in the U.S. Coast Survey and became the National Bureau of Standards in 1901. This photographic collection contains images of Hassler’s instruments, a monument dedicated to his life and work, and portraits of Hassler and his family.

First Annual Science Fair at NBS Boulder Photographic Collection This collection is comprised of photographs and a program from the First Annual Science Fair held at the laboratories of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in Boulder, CO, on April 28, 1956. More than 1,300 visitors viewed more than 200 exhibits by Colorado junior and senior high school students.

Founding of the National Bureau of Standards Photographic CollectionT his collection documents the founding of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and includes the letter requesting the establishment of a national standardizing bureau from the Secretary of the Treasury, the first payroll records, and photographs of early members of the NBS staff.

Gaithersburg Campus Photographic Collections* Congress approved relocation of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) from Washington, DC to Gaithersburg, MD in the 1950s. The new building would be dedicated by President Johnson on November 15, 1966. Secretary John T. Connor would preside, and the formal ceremonies would be followed by a special luncheon. The next two days would feature a symposium on Technology and World Trade, followed by an open house for the general public. This collection includes: Construction of the Gaithersburg Campus Photographic Collection; Gaithersburg Dedication Symposium Photographic Collection; and the Newton Apple Tree Photographic Collection.

High Voltage Laboratory Photograph Collection In 1938, Congress approved funds for the construction of a new high voltage laboratory building on the campus of the National Bureau of Standards. At a cost of $315,000, the new laboratory, with a 2 million-volt generator for high voltage work and a 1,400,000-volt generator for X-ray studies, was completed late in 1940 . The collection’s images document the high voltage laboratory building’s interior and apparatus used in measurement experiments.

Historic Photographs Collection This collection of images is comprised of many historical photographic collections housed in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Archives. Physical (non-digital) collections incorporated in the Historical Photographs Collection include: Blind Landing of Aircraft Photographic Collection, Camera for Photographing Eclipse, Diamond Anvil Cell, Gage Blocks and Buildings on Old Campus [NBS].

Hydraulics Laboratory Photographic Collection In 1930, Congress authorized the construction of the National Hydraulic Laboratory at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) campus. The mission of the laboratory was to make determinations of fundamental data useful in hydraulic research and engineering, including laboratory research relating to the behavior and control of river and harbor waters, the study of hydraulic structures and water flow, and the development and testing of hydraulic instruments and accessories.

Instrument Shops Photographic Collection This collection includes images from the founding of NBS in 1901 to the late 1970s. The Instrument Shops designed, constructed, and repaired high-precision instruments and auxiliary equipment for the use of National Bureau of Standards (NBS) scientists. Today the Instrument Shops are known as the NIST Fabrication Technology Group.

Jacob Rabinow Photographic Collection Jacob Rabinow came to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1938 as a junior mechanical engineer. Rabinow rose to the position of Chief of the Electro-Mechanical Ordnance Division where he played critical roles in such important NBS World War II achievements as the development of the proximity fuse and the Bat guided missile. Rabinow returned to NBS in 1972 as Chief Research Engineer of the National Engineering Laboratory. In 2005 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Leather Research Photographic Collection The Leather Research Photographic Collection consists of images of National Bureau of Standards (NBS) employees engaged in leather research during periods ranging from 1919 to the early 1960s. After the outbreak of World War I, leather became scarce and the search for substitutes began In the 1950s, NBS studied the pore structure of leather and the moisture content of leather as a function of humidity at different temperatures. The study was then extended to development of a new method for the determination of water-vapor permeability in leathers.

Low Cost Housing Photographic Collection This collection documents the work done by NBS in testing low cost materials for housing. In July 1970, National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Director Lewis M. Branscomb assigned to James R. Wright, Chief of the Building Research Division, the additional responsibility of cooperating with the Program Office to coordinate NBS efforts with the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Mass Standards Photographic Collection The Mass Standards Photographic Collection documents the kilograms and other mass standards held by NIST. These Prototype Kilograms are representative of the Kilogramme des Archives developed after the Treaty of the Meter was signed in 1875. The Kilogramme des Archives is held by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France.

Metallurgy Division Collection The Metallurgy Collection consists of images and publications related to the following NIST Archives collections: Aluminum from Clay, Studies of Metal Fatigue, Metallurgy Division, Metallurgy Research, Metallurgy Plating, and Prosthesis. The Metallurgy Division was established in 1913 for the purpose of testing railroad materials and technology and performing research in the chemical, physical, mechanical, and structural properties of metals. Since the reorganization of the Material Measurement Laboratory in 2012, the metallurgy program has been part of the Materials Science and Engineering Division.

Miniature Radio Receivers & Transmitters Photograph Collection The images in this collection record National Bureau of Standards (NBS) research on into miniature radio receivers and transmitters including a wrist watch transmitter conducted during the 1930s and 1940.

National Bureau of Standards Employees Circa 1918 Photographic Collection The collection contains individual identification photographs of NBS employees circa 1918. Each employee is shown with a number, presumably employee number. Accompanying documentation identifies employees by number and division.

National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC Campus, ca. 1905-1966 The National Bureau of Standards Washington, DC Campus (ca. 1905-1966) Photographic Collection consists of images documenting the former campus of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The photographs contain include aerial and exterior views of the NBS buildings located on Connecticut Ave. and Van Ness St. circa 1919-1952. The Connecticut Avenue location remained the home of NBS until 1966, when the campus was moved to its current location in Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Navigation Research Photographic Collection The Navigation Research Photographic Collection documents navigation instruments and the methods used to develop them. Instruments include: a radio compass developed by Frederick A. Kolster that enabled a ship to establish its position by determining with high accuracy the direction of sending station signals; and a tuned reed course indicator used with a radio beacon that gave an aircraft pilot a visible indication of whether he was on course.

NBS Circulars The two National Bureau of Standards Circulars included here are indexes of publications from the National Bureau of Standards. One volume covers publications from 1901 to June 1947. The second volume covers July 1947 to June 1957. NBS Circulars were a publication series. They were compilations of information on various subjects related to the Bureau’s scientific, technical, and engineering activities. The series was discontinued in June 1959 and circular material was directed to the Journal of Research and the Monograph series.

NBS Extracurricular Activities Photographic Collection* The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) sponsored many extracurricular activities for its staff and researchers. This collection documents activities such as annual picnics and field days between the 1930s and 1980s.

NBS Scientific Papers Results of research in science and technology from the National Bureau of Standards were reported in the Scientific Papers. The first 14 volumes of the Scientific Papers were issued as the Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards (1904-1919). Volumes 15-22 were issued as Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (1919-1928). Results of investigations of materials and methods of testing were reported in the 22 volumes of Technologic Papers (1910-1928). In July 1928 the Scientific Papers and Technologic Papers were combined and issued under the title Bureau of Standards Journal of Research.

NBS Summary Technical Reports (STRs) The NBS Summary Technical Reports (STRs) were typically summaries of current research, developments, and test activities conducted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The STRs were published for an external audience by the Office of Public Information, and were sometimes included in the NBS Technical News Bulletin. The series began in 1946 as the NBS Technical Reports, and was changed to the NBS Summary Technical Reports in 1953. The STRs were discontinued in 1975.

NBS Technologic Papers Technologic Papers of the Bureau of Standards were issued by the the U.S. National Bureau of Standards from 1910-1928. The publication merged with the earlier published Scientific papers of the Bureau of Standards, and became the Bureau of Standards Journal of Research.

NBS-Bulletin Results of research in science and technology from the National Bureau of Standards were reported in the Scientific Papers. The first 14 volumes of the Scientific Papers were issued as the Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards (1904-1919). Volumes 15-22 were issued as Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (1919-1928). Results of investigations of materials and methods of testing were reported in the 22 volumes of Technologic Papers (1910-1928). In July 1928 the Scientific Papers and Technologic Papers were combined and issued under the title Bureau of Standards Journal of Research.

NBS-NIST Directors Collection This collection features photographs from the NIST archives and photos of the official painted portraits of directors of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

NBS-NIST Histories This collection includes history books about of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The books cover the history of the agency from its creation in 1901 through 1993, with supplemental information through 2009. These volumes document some of the institution’s major achievements and contributions to the world of science and technology, U.S. industry, and the American economy.

NBS-NIST Reports (Graybacks)* National Bureau of Standards Reports, or "Graybacks", are usually preliminary or progress accounting documents intended for use within the U.S. Government. Before material in the reports is formally published it is subjected to additional evaluation and review.

NIST Journal of Research The NIST Digital Archives (NDA) currently contains full-text papers from the Journal of Research from the 1960’s to the present. All papers are searchable PDF files. Pre-1960’s papers are being added to the collection on an ongoing basis with the goal of making available all papers back to 1904.

NIST Museum Artifacts This collection of artifact images includes some of the scientific instruments held by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Museum. The NIST Museum showcases many of NIST’s historic achievements with exhibits that spotlight some of the agency’s notable scientists and artifacts of importance to the history of metrology. Further information is available at the NIST Virtual Museum at http://museum.nist.gov. The site features details on various exhibits in the physical museum as well as unique virtual exhibits.

NIST Organization Charts* NIST Organization Charts, 1991-2008 The organization charts update and expand the data presented in Appendix K of the report Responding to National Needs: The National Bureau of Standards Becomes the National Institute of Standards and Technology 1969-1993, by James F. Schooley, November 2000 (NIST SP-955).

NIST User Facilities Brochure Photographic Collection The collection contains images and graphics from an October 1988 brochure highlighting user research facilities at NIST. The photographs are of researchers using facilities such as the Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Facility and the Large-Scale Structures Testing Facility, along with images of the instruments used in many of the facilities including the Acoustic Anechoic Chamber.

Optical Glass Photographic Collection This collection of photos depicts glass operations at NBS during the 1920s to the 1940s and beyond. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) began studying the manufacture of optical glass in 1914 when Dr. Samuel Stratton ordered furnaces and apparatus for the NBS field laboratory in Pittsburgh. This was especially important because though American optical firms usually imported their quality glass, WWI abruptly cut off the supply of optical instruments and optical glass to the U.S.

Ordnance from World War II Photographic Collection The Ordnance WWII Photographic Collection illustrates the development of aerial ordnance at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) during World War II and beyond. NBS developed ordnance for both the Army and the Navy, which included radio proximity fuses for rockets and bombs, and guided missiles, including the “Bat,” the first fully automatic guided missile used successfully in combat. The Ordnance WWII Photographic Collection includes the smaller Bat Missile Photographic Collection.

Panama Pacific International Exposition, 1915 Photographic Collection The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was a world's fair that took place between February 20, 1915 and December 4, 1915 in the Marina District of San Francisco, CA. The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and the Smithsonian Institution created extensive exhibits for the exposition. Included in the exhibits were replica weights and measures of various sizes, and a miniature standard test railway car. This collection’s photographs document the interior of the exhibit hall with NBS displays and exhibits.

Paper Research Photographic Collection Using funds provided by the Carnegie Foundation, National Bureau of Standards (NBS) scientists researched the permanence of Government writing papers, the preservation of records, and of library storage conditions. The investigation culminated in NBS's work on the preservation at the National Archives of the originals of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.

Polymers Division Collection The Polymers Division Collection is comprised of images and publications related to the following NIST Archives collections: Dental Research, Plastics Research, and Rubber Research. The Polymers Division was established in 1962 from what had been the Organic and Fibrous Materials Division. Since the reorganization of the Material Measurement Laboratory in 2012, polymers research primarily resides in two divisions, the Materials Science and Engineering Division and the Biosystems and Biomaterials Division.

Project Tinkertoy Photographic Collection Project Tinkertoy was the code-name for a development and proof of concept project undertaken by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to create a process for automated manufacture of electronic equipment and for demonstrating it on a pilot production line. While NBS’s modular design was not used directly in industry, the modular design and mechanized production concepts became the customary way of producing electronic equipment. This collection of images includes design models for the plant, plant machinery, and examples of the components produced.

Radioactivity Measurement Laboratory Photographic Collection Research in radium began at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in December 1913 when a phial containing 20.28 milligrams of pure radium arrived from abroad. It was a certified equivalent to the International Radium Standard at Sevres, and a cover communication described its comparison with another quantity of radium salts prepared at Vienna and accepted as a second standard. NBS served hospitals and physicians by analyzing their radium salts against the international standard.

Radiosonde Photographic Collection In the late 1930s Harry Diamond, Wilbur Hinman, and Francis Dunmore undertook research to devise a practical system of radiometeorography for the Navy’s Bureau of Aeronautics. A year after beginning construction of their unit, Diamond and his group sent up their first model radiosonde and demonstrated its effectiveness in transmitting continuous data on cloud height and thickness, temperature, pressure, humidity, and light intensity in the upper atmosphere.

Reagan Participation in Superconductivity Conference Photographic Collection This collection documents President Ronald Reagan’s surprise visit to a Federal Conference on Commercial Applications of Superconductivity on July 28, 1987. The Federal government, he announced, should strive mightily to develop and commercialize the field of high-temperature superconductivity.

Reflecting Telescope Photographic Collection The most ambitious undertaking in the history of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) glass plant was its casting of a 69.5-inch disk for the mirror of a large reflecting telescope. At the time, there were not more than 10 optical glass plants in the world, all abroad, capable of making such a disk. The images in this collection document the work to design and pour the disk.

SEAC Computer Photographic Collection Construction of the (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC) began in the fall of 1948 in the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Electronics Division by a group under Samuel N. Alexander, and with active collaboration by members of the Machine Development Laboratory. NBS was positioned to build the SEAC after gaining experience creating electronic components and devices during World War II. Thus, the SEAC was the first computer to use solid-state electronics extensively.

Space Beads SRM Photographic Collection When the U.S. space shuttle “Challenger” landed in 1983, a measurement problem landed with it. On board was a packet of several billion polystyrene beads, formed into nearly identical spheres during Challenger's flight. NASA designed an apparatus to duplicate bead preparation in space and NBS examined and measured the beads made in the weightless environment of space. The new Standard Reference Material (SRM), the first space-produced beads to be offered for sale, was given the identification SRM 1960. The images in this collection cover the development of the beads and a press conference announcing the production of the new SRM.

Spectroscopy Research Photographic Collection For almost a century before the founding of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), analysis of chemical elements through their emission spectra had been the subject of studies in Europe. It was well known that each chemical element or combination of elements has distinctive spectra. Yet in that time practically none of the spectra of the elements had been completely described. Upon his arrival at NBS as a young laboratory assistant in 1914, Dr. William F. Meggers began the measurement of wavelengths of light and their application to an understanding of the spectra of chemical elements.

SWAC Computer Photographic Collection Dedicated on August 17, 1950 at the Institute for Numerical Analysis at UCLA, the Standards Western Automatic Computer (SWAC) was the companion computer to the SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer). It was to handle special problems of the aircraft industry on the west coast for the Navy Department, as well as engineering, physics, and mathematical calculations required by the National Bureau of Standards and by other Federal agencies in the area.

Wilmer Souder Notebooks Physicist Dr. Wilmer Souder (1884-1974) worked at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS; today known as NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology) in precision measurements for half a century from 1911 to 1961. For much of his NBS career, Souder led the Thermal Expansion Section but his activities spanned dental materials research and forensic identification research and casework. This collection of nine notebooks contains high-level summaries of cases describing his forensic science activities in handwriting, typewriting, and bullet analysis. These notebooks describe work performed on over 800 cases submitted from about 80 different agencies, mostly for cases in which the federal government was a party.

Wind Tunnel Photographic Collection This collection documents a wind tunnel building which began operation in January of 1918. The wind tunnel that Dr. Lyman J. Briggs designed housed a 9-foot propeller that produced air speeds of 90 miles an hour. In it Briggs installed recording apparatus and began his measurements on airfoils and on airplane and dirigible models. In almost continuous operation, the wind tunnel was also used to make studies of wind stresses, to test airspeed indicators and similar instruments, and to determine the flight characteristics of aerial bombs.

WWV Photographic Collection Since 1923, the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) has operated radio stations that broadcast standard time and frequency signals that were used as both time and frequency standards. These signals were the basis for setting clocks and were widely used for navigation, for setting frequencies of broadcast stations, and for other uses in which accurate frequency control was important. WWV locations have included Washington, D.C. (1923-1931), College Park, Maryland (1931-1932), Greenbelt, Maryland (1932-1966), and Fort Collins, Colorado (1966 to the present).

X-Ray Standards Photographic Collection At the National Bureau of Standards, Lauriston S. Taylor’s work on the absolute measurement of X-rays, published in 1929, showed that the roentgen could be precisely measured, and resulted in the first real quantitative data on X-ray standards in this country. Working through the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (the American counterpart of the councils working on standards in Europe), Lauriston Taylor’s X-ray safety code in 1931 established guides for the shielding of operating rooms and of high voltage equipment and for protective devices for patients and operators.

 

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