The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) conducted battery research as early as 1917 as part of the war effort. NBS evaluated hundreds of battery additives that claimed to revive dead batteries. None appeared to have any significant effect on battery life or performance. The AD-X2 battery-testing controversy, which began in 1948, was caused by the testing of a product marketed under the name "Battery AD-X2.” When added to a lead-acid battery this product allegedly improved the battery’s performance and, under some circumstances, could presumably revive a dead battery. The NBS tests of this product resulted in congressional hearings, newspaper headlines, and charges of Bureau bias against the "little guy." Throughout the controversy, NBS stood by its position that the AD-X2 battery additive was “without merit.” The findings of a National Academy of Sciences committee supported the position of NBS, and NBS came away from the controversy perceived to be more credible than ever.
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